DESCRIPTION

The Window Liners are the window frames (window frames) that one can find at the different raamframes.

They're ready to buy from some company that cockpit stuff to sell. Generally they are very pricey and they should also just fit with the window frame that one uses.

It is also the intention of my "Window Liners" themselves.

The Window Liners are divided into :

  • Middle strut windshield window liner;
  • Side window armrest/Chart holder (Capt and F/O);
  • AFT Lower window liners (Capt and F/O);
  • AFT Upper window liners (Capt and F/O);
  • FWD Upper/Front window liners (Capt and F/O);
  • Imitation glass (plexi or pvc).

THE USE PROCESS.

As preparation for the making of this ‘Window Liners’ is figuring out what materials I can best use.

I first thought it was MDF-wood but that is much too cumbersome and too heavy.

A number of conditions need to be fulfilled to make a choice :

  • May not be heavy but light in use;
  • Should be firm, and deukvrij;
  • Should be easy to process such as e.g. the creation of specific forms;
  • Must be pretty fine and easily able to be sanded;
  • The finishing such as painting the best can happen;
  • It is easy to secure.

Some cockpitbouwers use fiber glass in their cockpit. This idea seemed to me something to try.

This process is also frequently used at bootbouwers/repairers and also in the world of model making.

I've been in contact with hobbyists in the modelbouwwereld that submarines in the other crafts, and they advise me to try with styrofoam, epoxy, fiberglass and polysterplamuur.

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So said, so done ...

The science which I here declare that is coming from the tips and advice of specialists from the boorsector and the modelbouwwereld. And, of course, a little bit of my own findings about this, for me, unknown matter.

 

 

 

THE MATERIALS TO BE USED

  • Polystyrene Styrodur/Polyfoam;
  • Epoxy or Acrylic One;
  • Glass cloth;
  • Shipping to most european countries or putty with fiberglass;
  • Primer/Lacquers RAL 7011

Styrofoam

The form and shape of the Window Liner is first made in styrofoam (in the vernacular : Styropor).

The properties of this polystyrene is that, as another styrofoam is light and also that it easily allows sanding in all forms.
On the other hand, is styrofoam also very vulnerable for dents, holes or notches. So handle with care is the message.

We do not use the white styrofoam that you can find in the Brico or Gamma but specific insulation styrofoam with a minimal grain and good density such as Styrodur and Polyfoam. These are usually found in the various stores.

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The Styrodur is both in blue and in a green colour. You will also find with the yellow color.

These plates of different thicknesses are evenly sprayed. The yellow on the other hand is thinner with a lip/groove cut and is of a poorer quality and there are sometimes hard lumps in. We keep it so blue or green Styrodur or the grey/white Polyfoam

Since the local hardware store no Styrodur and Polyfoam, I have tests done with Polyfoam (white/grey).

The styrofoam can be cut with a wood working tools or a hacksaw. With a band saw also.

The sanding is very easy (too easy) so soon what polystyrene foam will disappear like snow for the sun. So it is best to use a 5 mm (or more) extra to take in the length and/or width.

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The glue can with white wood glue. NEVER on the sides glues where you have to scour. The glue is stronger than the Styro or Polyfoam and one gets there is hard. The lijmrandje remains you see.

 

 

 

 

Epoxy

Why do we have this Epoxy is needed ?

The polystyrene we are going to overcoat with Epoxy, so that there is around the styrofoam a glass and hard film (necessary for the fragile and soft styrofoam). The Styro and Polyfoam does not melt by the Epoxy. In another styrofoam that can happen ...

What is Epoxy ?

Epoxy is an exceptionally hard and tough chemical resin. It differs from other harssoorten, such as polyester and vinyl ester, because of the superior properties in terms of adhesion and resistance to chemicals, water, etc.

Epoxy resin formed from a chemical reaction between 2 components. Epoxy is the result of the cross connection between the molecules of the resin and the hardener.

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How to Epoxy to use ?

Resin and hardener are never used separately but always in combination. The Epoxy that I use is mixed in a ratio of 100 parts resin and 60 parts harder. The processing time is 30 min.

Don't try to uithardtijd to shorten by more harder to add:
It does not work. On the contrary, too much hardener causes the epoxy not hardening.

Very important: Please adhere to the ratio indicated on the instructions.

How the different parts to measure ?

The easiest way is by means of a mixing glass. You have no blender then it is easy to own a measuring cup to make: Use clear plastic cups. Fill one of the cups with water, 6 mm. Mark the water level on the cup and put an “H” on harder. This is the measuring cup for the harder.

Take another cup and fill it with 10 mm of water. Mark the water level and the measuring cup for the resin is ready. Dry the cups for use. Epoxy doesn't like to be mixed with water.

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How to mix ?

Mix the epoxy, not foam cups. When curing is the epoxy and hot and the cups would melt! Also, don't use glass jars. This may crack due to the heat that is released.

Mix the resin and hardener always in a round cup or pot and not in a square. So to make sure that no unmixed residue in corners remain. Also make sure that the edges of the mixing cup are no loose resin or harder to contain.

How to apply ?

With an old or a cheap painting brush a thin layer applied over the styrofoam. The layer is so fine and evenly applied.

It may possibly also a second layer to make for the firmness. Prefer 2 thin layers than one thick one.

In my experiment I found that one layer is sufficient for the foam to saturate and glazed with Epoxy.
(First I had to test it 2 thick coats of epoxy applied and immediately afterwards (still not dry) 2 layers fibre glass – see photo. This was not a nice and smooth result. And it was also a sticky affair ... So, I did my homework again repeated, and but one layer of epoxy is applied and one night cure).

Harden and naharden ?

The curing time (or pot life) is partly determined by the ambient temperature. Ideal is approx. 18-20 degrees. At a lower temperature there may still worked well, only will the curing take longer. Preferably do not use at a temperature lower than approx. 10 degrees.

When curing the release of heat. The resin hardens out in a mixing glass, then spread out over a larger surface area. For a longer time, you can the contents of the mixing glass is poured into a wide flat tray. At a temperature of approx. 18 degrees is the curing time (pot life) approx. 30-40 minutes. Within this time, the epoxy is still workable. Then the epoxy “gellen”. The epoxy is no longer workable and has the substance of cheese.

At this stage, without pre-processing the next layer of epoxy will be applied. At this stage, any excess resin and glass fibre yet can be easily removed with a sharp knife. The actual curing takes place only after several hours (or even days) depending on the ambient temperature.

I have to experiment the styrofoam with epoxy one night cure.

How everything clean ?

Preferably use wegwerpkwasten and rollers. The wegwerpkwasten a number of times. They can be cleaned with Acetone.

Uncured epoxy can be cleaned with white vinegar or Acetone .

Cured epoxy removal is slightly more difficult: Heat the epoxy with a hair dryer to a maximum of 90 degrees to the epoxy soft and remove as much as possible with a. or putty knife. The remaining epoxy to remove with sandpaper. Ensure adequate ventilation if your epoxy is going to heat up.

 

Acrylic One instead of Epoxy

In the last process, for strengthening of the styrofoam I the epoxy resin used, and this together with glass cloth and shipping to most european countries.
An other and easier way is the use of ‘Acrylic One‘. The use of epoxy resin is cumbersome and not particularly healthy to breathe in.
The idea is to opt for "Acrylic One" comes from a fellow cockpitbouwer Dion (Prosim nickname: Dion73).

With the exception of the ‘middenstrut’ of the ‘windshield’ I have all the other ‘Window Liners’ finished with ‘Acrylic One.

Acrylic One‘ it is a mixture of powder and liquid with a slurry, obtain one with a soft brush can smooth, for example, polystyrene. After a drying time of 1Hr is the coatings hard and ready for sanding. You can compare it with plaster, but much harder. Acrylic One is easy to use and is particularly odorless.

To try I have a test kit purchased at Poly-Service (EN). All about Acrylic One is comprehensively explained on their website:
http://www.acrylicone.nl/
http://www.acrylicone.nl/Education/Youtube

In this test kit, I also got a bottle of Acrylic One Thix A bought. This liquid can be extra to the mixture do to the slurry to thicken so that the mixture becomes thicker and less liquid. Good for large grooves or holes to fill.

Now, what is the procedure?

After the mixing, (1 min) of the correct proportions (1 gewichtsmaat liquid LPO1 Liquid and 2 gewichtsmaten powder LPO1 Powder) the mixture is ready for use. This mixture is +- 20 min useful.

  • A layer of Acrylic One mixture to the styrofoam with the supplied soft brush;
  • When this layer is still wet then add a layer of glass cloth over it (it is recommended that the glass cloth in advance cut to size – time-saving!);
    Note. In the test kit, there is also glass cloth but which is much too coarse to use. Glass cloth with a finer structure is easier and better to work.
  • After the application of the glass cloth is again a layer of Acrylic One over it applied.
    All actions happen in succession without waiting for curing.

To the firmness additional to improve, one can possibly these 3 repeat the process. For the ‘Window liners’ is sufficient to do this but once.
After 1Hr all would be cured, but I for safety, waiting until the next day.

Cured Acrylic One is easy to sand but the grooves that are created by the painting brush are not always easy to get. Especially not when one is a thickener used.

The surface is still not flat and smooth this through the use of the painting brush, the glass cloth and imperfections in the styrofoam.

The objective of the use of Acrylic One with glass cloth is actually the same as with Epoxy and that is the styrofoam hard to make and strengthen ... more.

I have therefore, after the first scour off a thin layer of body filler applied. This can filler with particles of glass fiber or shipping to most european countries. This can be the surface is flatter and better barns to a shiny and smooth surface.
Also the transitions between the wooden wall and the styrofoam should be filled. These transitions must be seamless and together form one whole.
The smoothing and grinding are repeated until all surfaces to your liking. Patience, patience, patience ... 🙂

How to clean?

Much safer and healthier than the Epoxy: with water.

 

Glass cloth

What is glass cloth ?

Glass fabric and clutches consist of long, very fine glasdraden that to a thicker wire to be bundled. These threads are woven in the case of glass fabric or to each other, stitched in the case of glaslegsels.

We have 2 types. Glass cloth and glasmat.

Glass cloth :
Of glass yarn, like other yarns - woven fabrics are made. Glass fabric (cloth) in comparison with glasmat a higher tensile strength. At vierkantweefsel each weft thread over and under the following kettingdraad by. This creates a schuifvast tissue, but it is by forms in more directions are curved, more difficult to to bring.
The super light fabric is ideal for model making especially also because they are finer in structure.

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Glasmat :
Glasmat is the most applied versterkingsmateriaal in processing of polyester. The short pieces of fiber are criss-cross through and over each other, and a binder glued to each other. The structure is much coarser and so less suitable for our Window Liners.

For the Window Liners, I use glass cloth of 45 g/m2

Why do we need fiber need ?

The vitrified epoxy coat over the styrofoam gives a hardness to the styrofoam but is fragile (glass!). Therefore, we process one or two layers of fibre glass cloth into the Epoxy so that the whole firm and flexible (elastic).
The glass fiber provides the necessary strength and protection to the Epoxy (against bumping can't hurt). Without glass fibre crack the Epoxy.

How to apply ?

The glass cloth is first cut to size, i.e. the full front with a overschotje on both sides. The rear I just left without glass cloth with a layer of Epoxy.

The glasdoekje is on the front and put ingeborsteld (and saturating) with a new layer of Epoxy. The glasdoekje ‘disappears’ in the epoxy coat. Also, try here as fine as possible so that there is a smooth surface.

Make sure that the glass cloth to be well stretched and without creases.

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Then, the sides are further ingeborsteld with Epoxy. You possibly can consider a second layer of glass cloth for extra strength but I found it not necessary.

I have a 24Hr to dry and harden.

Then is the turn to a few layers of shipping to most european countries.

 

 

Shipping to most european countries

What is shipping to most european countries ?

Polyesterprodukten are ideally suited for repairs to the car bodywork, boats, surfboards, pools, caravans, etc. They attach very well on both wood, stone, metal and many plastics. This polyesterprodukten (filler) are usually products on the basis of 2 components (resin and hardener).

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After mixing gets you an easy-to-edit, pasta, soon hardens and a strong repair.

This shipping to most european countries is to obtain in shops and shops where they variations in body material for cars sales.

Why have we shipping to most european countries necessary ?

With shipping to most european countries we can all bumps, holes and notches to eliminate after the application of the glasmat with epoxy.

For the Window Liners I use fine shipping to most european countries and this filler provides extra sturdiness and, after a thorough and sophisticated scour off is a smooth and hard surface.

Shipping to most european countries is actually quite easy to sand.

How to mix ?

As already mentioned, we obtain shipping to most european countries by 2 components to mix (resin and hardener).

For the filler I use is that 100 gr of resin and 2 à 3 gr harder. The processing time is 5 min.

How to apply ?

You can use the putty application with a fine thin smooth spatula. Very easy to make one yourself, by one to be cut out of the lid or box ijscreme has resident.

The putty should be very thin to be made and if there is pitting than in multiple layers. I had in my sample with 2 thin coats is enough.

If you are good with the epoxy have worked, and the styrofoam in the right shape, sanded it without errors, then you need little finishing and sanding is less.

After the fairing applications again sufficient to dry and cure (see instructions on the box for minimum curing process).

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Body filler with glass fiber

Another filler that I have used is Aguaplast of Beissier. This is sold in tubes and is applied in thicker coats. This for the corners and edges to fill or to finish as e.g. in the case of the sidewalls.
This body filler that contains fiberglass and is easy to use, and this without components or harsmiddelen. A must!

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Sanding ?

The sanding is done with sanding paper with a grit of 280 and 320 (evt. carrosseriepapier). You can use the sandpaper to a wooden block folds, if not, follow the shape of the window liner by with a as large as possible part of your hand, evenly press the paper to exercise.

Shed always have a larger distance than the filled surface and keep sanding until your transition feel between the filled portion and the form itself. Now, you will see that the filled area is pretty flat, but sometimes small or larger pits or unevenness. This you should go to fill with a new layer of putty that you then again need to cure and then back to sanding.

This process you will be sometimes a number of times to repeat, with the only consolation that you ever will need filling and thus also ever less will need sanding.

The finish is just sand with a fine grit of 400 or 600, all wash off with a damp cloth and degrease.

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Painting

First, a few coats of primer applied with a spray can. Painting with an airbrush gives a finer and smoother result.

The primer is, in turn, also gladgeschuurd and then 2 coats of varnish are applied (Boeinggrijs RAL 7011 or ACC R06.06.30). This is also an aerosol.

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